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Communication, Film, and Media

A research guide for topics in Communications, Film, and Media.

Why cite?

What is Plagiarism?

The simplified definition for plagiarism is the copying and borrowing of another's original ideas and/or words. Plagiarism occurs with the inclusion of material not explicitly cited as well as with collaborative work from another student willfully or otherwise.


Penalties for Plagiarism

Each incidence of plagiarism is subject to review and consideration by the instructor, and is subject to a range of penalties including but not limited to failing the assignment, failing the course, and referral to the disciplinary review board (which may ultimately result in the expulsion, suspension, or disciplinary removal of the student from the university).

Citing Sources

Be sure to check out the Citation Guide from Purdue Writing Lab for information on how to cite from sources in a variety of styles.

Associated Press Style

  • AP Style provides guidelines for writing for news. Many newspapers, magazines and public relations offices across the US use this style.

Citing AI in News and Media

The Associated Press guidelines on AI use is that artificial intelligence tools cannot be used in the production of publishable content.

Other styles have released guidelines for citing AI. See those below.

Citing AI Using Common Citation Styles


  • The AI tool is not an author, so the author section will be omitted.
  • For images, use a figure number (e.g. Fig. 1).
  • A description of generated text will replace the title. For images, use the full prompt or the first several words of the prompt.
  • The name of the AI tool will replace the title of container.
  • Include the version of the AI tool and the date the content was generated.
  • Finally, the URL for the tool, if available.
  • Format: "Prompt" prompt. AI Tool name, version, tool creator, date generated. URL.
  • Example for generative text:
    • Within the text: ("Description, shortened")
    • Bibliography: "Description, long form" prompt. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 16 Nov. 2023,
  • Example for generated image(s):
    • Fig. 1. "Description of the image" prompt, DALL-E, version 2, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023,


  • "Chat" with ChatGPT is sharing an alorithm's output.
  • The author of the algorithm is credited as the "author."
  • The "title" is the resource used, such as ChatGPT. Include version information if available.
  • Link to the chat or resource website.
  • Include the prompt within the text of your paper. Below is the example provided by APA for generative text:
    • When prompted with “Is the left brain right brain divide real or a metaphor?” the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that although the two brain hemispheres are somewhat specialized, “the notation that people can be characterized as ‘left-brained’ or ‘right-brained’ is considered to be an oversimplification and a popular myth” (OpenAI, 2023).


      OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

  • Example for images:
    • In text citation: (OpenAI, 2023)
    • Bibliography: OpenAI. (2023). DALL-E 2. [AI image generator].


  • Generative text:
    • The "author" is replaced by the AI tool used.
    • The "publisher" is replaced by the company who developed the tool.
  • Generated images:
    • The "title" is the full prompt.
    • The creator is "image generated by" the company that developed the tool.
  • Following these, the date of generation will take the place of publication date.
  • Finally, add a link to the item or chat, if available.
  • The prompt can either be included in the text of your paper, or it can be included in the citation following the "author."
  • Examples:
    • For generative text: ChatGPT, response to "prompt," OpenAI, November 13, 2023. http://chatlink
    • If you've edited what was generated, it must be noted.
  • For generated images:
    • "Prompt used," image generated by OpenAI's DALL-E 2, November 5, 2023.