These are some digital libraries that include primary source materials that may be useful in anthropological research. Listed alphabetically.
Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History
Monographic volumes that include some of the great ethnographies of the 20th century, particularly on North American Indians.
The Bibliografía Mesoamericana provides a comprehensive and continually updated bibliographic dataset of the published literature pertaining to the anthropology of Mesoamerica. Content includes archaeology, ethnography, ethnohistory, art history, linguistics, physical anthropology, and other related disciplines.
National Archeological Database
A computerized communications network for the archeological and historic preservation community, established to improve access to information on archeological activities nationwide. This internationally recognized resource is maintained through a cooperative agreement between NPS and the Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies (CAST) at the University of Arkansas.
National Park Service site providing information and tools related to NAGPRA compliance.
Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection
A large collection of maps organized by region. I found the site useful when I was writing a research paper and wanted to include a map of the region I was discussing.
World Digital Library
Resources include, but are not limited to, manuscripts, maps, rare books, musical scores, recordings, films, prints, photographs, and architectural drawings. Items on the WDL may easily be browsed by place, time, topic, type of item, and contributing institution, or can be located by an open-ended search, in several languages.
WPA/TVA Archaeological Photographs
Database of information describing photographs taken by Works Progress Administration (WPA) workers of archaeological projects conducted in preparation for Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) dam construction in the 1930s.